SUMMARY. This review presents the main directions and experimental data to search among the different species of yeast – active producers of lipids and the ways to lipidogenesis process optimization in the most promising stains. It was shown that enzymatic processes course can be directed with maintaining the necessary cultivation conditions. The influence on the growth, development and biochemical activity of microbial medium composition, temperature, aeration and oxidation-reduction conditions was considered. These factors changing have affected the microorganisms biosynthetic activity, lipidogenic yeasts activity and synthesized lipids composition. Lipidogenic yeasts ability and relatively rapid ability on changing the amount and composition of lipids by the direct cultivation leads to the conclusion that lipids obtained by microbial synthesis can be a source of commercial raw materials for biofuel.