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Development of winter wheat starting material using interspecific crossing for breeding for increased protein content
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SUMMARY. The results of new bread winter wheat starting material development using interspecific crosses for breeding on increased protein content are presented. The 35 primary (2–4 crosses with modern varieties) and 20 advanced (5 and more crosses with the varieties) bread winter wheat introgression lines were studied, and nine genotypes characterized by increased relative protein content and also groups of lines combining the relatively high thousand grain weight or protein content indexes with resistance to leaf or stem rust and alien glum hearing were isolated. A significant effect of lines grouping for the number of crosses with modern varieties on the productivity, protein content and sedimentation value, and cross combinations, in particular sources of alien characters, on protein content and weight of thousand grains were found. It is shown that an increase of grain protein content, observed at the backcrossing, not always correlated with the improvement of flour quality. A low frequency of combining of the characters of high protein content, large grains with the high productivity and grain quality was registered in the advanced lines. The absence of the most studied characters with protein content correlation and weak positive correlation (r = 0,28*…0,30*) of thousand grain weight with both characteristics of quality - the sedimentation and protein content were established. The line productivity harmfully correlated with protein content (r=–0,43*) only in one variant of the experiment. The lines B241_09, Å2792_14, Å1598_12 and Od.267b which had relatively high protein content and combined moderate resistance to certain diseases with the relatively high characteristics of the productivity and sedimentation were isolated. The isolated lines are characterized by instability of the productivity and other characters in different environments and require an improvement to stability of these characteristics. The quasiisogenic lines, created on the basis of cv. Odesskaya 267, with resistance to leaf rust (Å2363_14, Å2368_14 and Å2369_14) had higher productivity, protein content and thousand grain weight than recurrent cv. Odesskaya 267 on low agricultural background. It was not possible to integrate high productivity in optimal environments with tolerance to hard environments of drought in one genotype by interspecific hybridization and further complicated step crosses with the elements of recurrent breeding.
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