Information to authors
Reporting of B-chromosomes in Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (Ajwain)
To the best of our knowledge this is the first study regarding the reporting of B chromosomes in this plant species. During the meiotic study of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague, maximum two B chromosomes were reported in diploid plants which were retained in induced autotetraploid after the treatment of 0.2 % colchicine at seedling stage. In the present study, the meiotic behaviour of B-chromosomes was analyzed in Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague. The presence of B chromosomes and their number in the plant species of higher ploidy level is controversial. The existence of B chromosomes in polyploids varies from species to species. In the present case, no change has been observed in the number of B chromosomes despite the duplication of A chromosomes in autotetraploid plant. The unaffected number of B chromosomes represents their peculiar behaviour of inheritance. The plant species show adaptive mechanism for their retention in population. In the present study, significant changes (p<0.05) have been observed in the chiasma frequency and pollen fertility of both diploid carrier plant as compare to non-carrier ones. Furthermore, the chromosomal associations have also been considered with observed number of B chromosomes in autotetraploid carrier plant. In autotetraploid carrier plant, the frequencies of multivalents were found to be quite low in comparison to diploid carrier plant.
Key words: B chromosomes, carrier and non-carrier plants, diploid, autotetraploid, chiasma frequency, pollen fertility
Plant Genetics Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India
E-mail: harshitadwivedi88 gmail.com
1. Levin, D.A., Palestis, B.G., Jones, R.N., and Trivers, R., Phyletic hotspots for B chromosomes in angiosperms, Evolution, 2005, vol. 59, pp. 962–969.
2. Houben, A. and Carchilan, M., Plant B chromosomes: what makes them different?, in Plant Cytogenetics, Bass, H.W. and Birchler, J.A., Eds., Plant Genetics 59 and Genomics: Crops and Models 4, 2012.
3. Perfectti, F. and Werren, J.H., The interspecific origin of B chromosomes: experimental evidence, Evolution, 2001, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1069–1073.
4. Camacho, J.P.M., Sharbel, T.F., and Beukeboom, L.W., B-chromosome evolution, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci., 2000, vol. 355, pp. 163–178.
5. Maluszynska, J. and Schweizer, D., Ribosomal RNA genes in B chromosomes of Crepis capillaries detected by non-radioactive in situ hybridization, Heredity, 1989, vol. 62, pp. 59–65.
6. Stitou, S., Diaz de La Guardia, R., Jimenez, R., and Burgos, M., Inactive ribosomal cistrons are spread throughout the B chromosomes of Rattus rattus (Rodentia, Muridae). Implications for their origin and evolution, Chromosome Res., 2000, vol. 8, pp. 305–311.
7. van Vugt, J., de Nooijer, S., Stouthamer, R., and de Jong, H., NOR activity and repeat sequences of the paternal sex ratio chromosome of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai, Chromosoma, 2005, vol. 114, pp. 410–419.
8. Green, D.M., Muller’s rachet and the evolution of supernumerary chromosomes, Genome, 1990, vol. 33, pp. 818–824.
9. Jones, R.N., Gonzalez-Sanchez, M., Gonzalez-Garcia, M., Vega, J.M., and Puertas, M.J., Chromosomes with a life of their own, Cytogenet. Genome Res., 2008, vol. 120, pp. 265–280.
10. Beukeboom, L.W., Bewildering Bs: an impression of the 1st B-Chromosome Conference, Heredity, 1994, vol. 73, pp. 328–336.
11. Jones, R.N., Tansley Review No. 85: B chromosomes in plants, New Phytol., 1995, vol. 131, pp. 411–434.
12. Jones, R.N., B-chromosome drive, Am. Nat., 1991, vol. 137, pp. 430–442.
13. Dhar, M.K., Friebe, B., Koul, A.K., and Gill, B.S., Origin of an apparent B chromosome by mutation, chromosome fragmentation and specific DNA sequence amplification, Chromosoma, 2002, vol. 111, pp. 332–340.
14. Staub, R.W., Leaf striping correlated with the presence of B chromosomes in maize, J. Hered., 1987, vol. 78, pp. 71–74.
15. Gill, J.J.B., Jones, B.M.G., Marchant, C.J., NeLeish, J., and Ockendoy, D.J., The distribution of chromosome races of Ranunculus ficaria L. in the British Isles, Ann. Bot., 1972, vol. 36, pp. 31–47.
16. Sharma, A.K. and Aiyangar, H.R., Occurrence of B chromosomes in diploid Allium stracheyii Baker and their elimination in polyploids, Chromosoma (Berl.), 1961, vol. 12, pp. 310–317.
17. Papes, D., B chromosomes of the genus Leucanthenum in Yugoslavia, Acata Biol. Yugoslav., Genet, 1971, vol. 3, pp. 261–270.
18. Bocher, T.W., Chromosome behaviour and syncyte formation in Phleum phleoides (L.), Bot. Notiser, 1950, pp. 353–368.
19. Hakanson, A., Behaviour of accessory rye chromosome in the embryo-sac, Hereditas, 1948, vol. 34, nos. 1/2, pp. 35–59.
20. Hakanson, A., Embryology of Poa alpina plants with accessory chromosomes, Hereditas, 1948, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 233–247.
21. Hakanson, A., Transmission of accessory chromosomes in Poa alpina, Hereditas, 1954, vol. 40, pp. 523–526.
22. Muntzing, A., Different chromosome numbers in root tips and pollen mother cells in a sexual strain of Poa alpina, Hereditas, 1946, vol. 32, pp. 127–129.
23. Muntzing, A., Accessory chromosomes in Poa alpina, Heredity, 1948, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 60–61.
24. Muntzing, A., Some recent data on accessory chromosomes in Secale and Poa. Chromosomes Today, 1966, vol. 1, pp. 7–14.
25. Haga, T., Intra-individual variation in number and linear patterning of the chromosomes I. B chromosomes in Rumex paris and Scilla Proc. Japan. Acad., 1961, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 627–632.
26. Teppner, H., Cytosystematik, bimodale Chromosomensatze and Permanentanorthoploidie bei Onosma (Boraginaceae), Ost. But. Z., 1971, vol. 119, pp. 196–233.
27. Raghuvanshi, S.S. and Pant, M., (nee' Upreti), Response of B chromosomes to induced tetraploid in Trigonella-foenum-graecum, Perspect. Cytol. Genet., 1981. V. 3. P. 167–170.
28. Raghuvanshi, S.S. and Mahajan, S., Chromosomal association in B carrier and non-carrier diploid, tetraploid and octaploid Impatiens balsamina L., Ind. Nat. Sci. Acad., 1982, vol. 48, pp. 147–151.
29. Kootin-Sanwu, M., Populations and hybrids in Caltha palustris, Chromosomes Today, 1966, vol. 1, p. 266.
30. Kootin-Sanwu, M. and Woodell, S.R.J., The cytology of Caltha palustris L. (Sensulato): distribution and behaviour of the chromosome races, Caryologia, 1970, vol. 23, pp. 225–239.
31. Kootin-Sanwu, M., The cytology of Caltha palustris. Cytogenetic relationships, Heredity, 1971, vol. 26, pp. 121–135.
32. Jones, R.N. and Rees, H., Genotypic control of chromosome behavior in Rye XI. The influence of B chromosomes on meiosis, Heridity, 1967, vol. 22, pp. 333–346.
33. Jones, R.N. and Rees, H., B Chromosomes, London: Academic. 1982, 1st ed.
34. Jayalakshmi, K. and Pantulu, J.V., The effect of B-chromosome on A-chromosome chiasma formation in pearl millet, Cytologia, 1984, vol. 49, pp. 635–643.
35. Rao, M.V.S. and Pantulu, J.V., The effect of B chromosome on meiosis in pearl millet Pennisetum typhoides, Chromosoma (Berl.), 1978, vol. 69, pp. 121–130.
36. Raghuvanshi, S.S. and Kumar, G., No male sterility gene on B-chromosome in Plantago coronopus, Heredity, 1983, vol. 51, pp. 429–433.
37. Hanson, G.P., B-chromosome stimulated crossing over in maize, Genetics, 1969, vol. 63, pp. 601–609.
38. Ward, E.J., The heterochromatic B-chromosome of maize: the segments affecting recombination, Chromosoma, 1973, vol. 43, pp. 177–186.
39. Kumar, G. and Singh, V., Influence of B-chromosomes on genetic recombination and fertility in pearl millet, Cytologia, 2004, 69. P. 431–437.
40. Jackson, R.C. and Newmark, P., Effects of supernumerary chromosomes on production of pigment in happlopappus gracilis. Science, New York, 1960, vol. 132.
41. Pant, M. and Raghuvanshi, S.S., Chromosomal association in C1, C2 and C8 auto-tetraploid B carrier Trigonella foenum-graceum L., J. Cytol. Genet., 1980, vol. 15, pp. 93–98.
42. Paliwal, R.L. and Hyde, B.B., The association of a single B chromosome with male sterility in Plantago coronopus, Am. J. Bot., 1959, vol. 46, pp. 460–466.
43. Kumar, G. and Dikshit, A., Influence of B chromosomes on chiasma frequency in Impatiens balsamina, J. Cytol. Genet., 2002, vol. 3, pp. 101–104.
44. Bala, S., Kaushal, B., and Gupta, R.C., Effect of B‑chromosomes on meiotic behaviour and genetic recombination in Artemisia nilagirica (C. B. Clarke) Pamp., Chromosome Botany, 2012, vol. 7, pp. 9–12.
45. Carlson, W.R., Roseman, R., and Zheng, Y., Localizing a region on the B chromosome that influences crossing over, Maydica, 1993, vol. 38, pp. 107–113.
46. Evans, G.M. and Macefield, A.J., Suppression of homoeologous pairing by B chromosomes in a Lolium species hybrid, Nat. New Biol., 1972, vol. 236, pp. 110–111.
47. Evans, G.M. and Macefield, A.J., The effect of B chromosomes on homoeologous pairing in species hybrids. I. Lolium temulentum x Lolium perenne, Chromosoma, 1973, vol. 41, pp. 63–73.
48. Marschner, S., Kumke, K., and Houben, A., B chromosomes of B. dichromosomatica show a reduced level of euchromatic histone H3 methylation marks, Chromosome Res., 2007, vol. 15, pp. 215–222.
49. Morais-Cecilio, L., Delgado, M., Jones, R.N., and Viegas, W., Painting rye B chromosomes in wheat: interphase chromatin organization, nuclear disposition and association in plants with two, three or four Bs, Chromosome Res., 1996, vol. 4, pp. 195–200.
50. Bougourd, S.M. and Jones, R.N., B chromosomes: a physiological enigma, New Phytol., 1997, vol. 137, pp. 43–54.
51. Muntzing, A., Accessory chromosomes in Secale and Poa, in Proc. VIII Int. Congr. Genet., Hereditas, 1949, suppl. vol., pp. 402–411.
52. Jones, R.N., Viegas, W., and Houben, A., A century of B chromosomes in plants: so what?, Ann. Bot. (Lond.), 2008, vol. 111, pp. 767–775.
53. Birchler, J.A., Yu, W., and Han, F., Plant engineered minichromosomes and artificial chromosome platforms, Cytogenet. Genome Res., 2008, vol. 120, pp. 228–232.
54. Yu, W., Han, F., Gao, Z., Vega, J.M., and Birchler, J.A., Construction and behavior of engineered minichromosomes in maize, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2007, vol. 104, pp. 8924–8929.
55. Yu, W., Lamb, J.C., Han, F., and Birchler, J.A., Telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation in maize, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2006, vol. 103, pp. 17331–17336.
|Coded & Designed by Volodymyr Duplij||Modified 18.06.21|