SUMMARY. Butanol – an alternative fuel that on amid dwindling global (accessible) oil reserves can serve as a source of energy. In the industrial-scale butanol is produced by chemical synthesis, although initially butanol production was due to microbiological synthesis. For cost-efficient production, a strain of microorganisms must have over production of butanol. In the review of butanol synthesis pathway with the help of microorganisms, their regulation, the principles and techniques of increasing the productivity of the most promising strains and producer strains for industrial production.